North Dakota Early Hearing Detection EHDI logoand Intervention Program


Hearing Loss Facts

Each day infants are discharged form the hospital at birth without receiving an initial hearing screening. By missing these critical opportunities, infant hearihng loss goes undectected for several years in nearly half of the cases. Consequently, these children miss out on early intervention to increase their language, cognitive, and social skills, and their overall development is severely delayed.

High Risk Criteria For Hearing Loss in Infants (0 to 28 days old)

(*Indicators associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing loss in infants)

Delayed Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss Indicators:

(Affects the inner ear and possibly beyond)

Conductive Hearing Loss Indicators

(Affects the outer and middle ear)

Delayed Onset Sensorineural Hearing Loss Indicators:

(Affects the inner ear and possibly beyond)

graphic of inner ear

Hearing Loss due to Prenatal Factors

(Congenital Hearing Loss - the child is born with the hearing loss)

Prenatal damage to the cochlear may be due to the partial or lack of cochlear development (inner ear), viral or parasitical invasion, spontaneous malformations or inherited syndromes.

The most common syndromes are Usher's syndrome and Pendred's syndrome. Usher's syndrome results in a hearing loss that ranges from moderate to profound and a degenerative visual loss. Any child with a profound hearing loss should be evaluated for eye disorders. Pendred's syndrome is a recessive endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by goiter formation and results in a moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss that is usually progressive in nature.

Other diseases that cause hearing loss include:

  1. Congenital Rubella
  2. Toxoplasmosis
  3. AIDS
  4. Herpes I and II
  5. Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
  6. Congenital Rubella
  7. Congenital hearing loss may be also diagnosed with the label "unknown".

Other syndromes that cause hearing loss include:

  1. Goldenhar
  2. Waardenburg
  3. Usher's
  4. Pendred
  5. Treacher-Collin's
  6. Crouzon's
  7. Brachio-Oto-Renal

Disorders Causing Hearing Loss at Birth

  1. RH-Incompatibility
  2. Congenital Syphilis
  3. Anoxia or asphyxia at birth
  4. Persistent Fetal Circulation (pulmonary hypertension)
  5. Low Birth Weight
  6. High Forceps Delivery
  7. Violent Uterine Contractions